Raw Materials

Articles on natural resources and raw materials in the ancient Indus civilization

INAA of agate sources and artifacts from the Indus, Helmand, and Thailand Regions

"Geologically speaking," write the authors, "agate is not a particularly uncommon rock . . .. However, good agate – i.e, that which ancient lapidaries would have found suitable for beadmaking – is not widely available. Nodules of the size and quality required to make Harappan-style long-barrel carnelian beads are, in fact, extremely rare" (p. 177).

A Technique for Determing the Provenance of Harappan Banded Limestone "Ringstones" Using ICP-AES

The author's propose a method to analyze some of the largest artifacts recovered at Indus Civilization (ca. 2600 to 1700 BC) cities in Pakistan and northwestern India, the limestone “ringstones.” This later led to the determination that Harappa's ringstones came from near Dholavira.

Moving Mountains: The Trade and Transport of Rocks and Minerals with the Greater Indus Valley Region

Harappa’s rock and mineral assemblage from the perspective of the greater Indus Valley’s complex geology, the distance one would have to travel to acquire certain materials and a discussion of the differing motivations behind the acquisition and transport of rock and minerals in the greater Indus Valley region.