In an ongoing attempt to understand how the now vanished people of the Indus culture ordered their society and to determine the sources of political, economic, military and ideological (religious) power in this remarkably extensive and urbanized state, the authors draw clues from the miscellaneous material they dig up and from the layout and architecture of the cities and settlements that were excavated.
Articles on the evolution, growth and decline of urbanity and fluctuations or changes in over time within the ancient Harappan or Indus Valley Civilization and its antecedents.
A look at climate, river-basin and other geographic factors and their relationship to the possible east-ward evolution of the Indus Valley civilization.
"What were the limits of the known world to the people that inhabited this region during the long prehistory for which we have evidence? What changes did they and their successors experience? What more can we say about the lure of distant lands?"
Archaeologists studying the emergence of early civilizations often focus on finely crafted art objects in order to understand the aspects of economic, socio-political and religious organization. The importance of such objects is increased when studying early societies for which there are no written records, such as the Indus Valley civilization.
An examination of the city's settlement remains which changed with the onset of urban growth and development in Harappa.
"Correlating ancient textual sources with iconography and archaeological evidence in general is notoriously a controversial exercise, constantly carried out on endemically slippery grounds," writes the author at the very start.
A paper examining and interpreting climate models and the history of water supply as it pertains to the Indus Valley civilization (including dramatic changes in precipitation and shifts in the Ravi River among the rerouting of other streams and tributaries).
"A small showcase of the Zahedan Museum keeps, among other finds, the fragmentary headless torso of a small statuette in a buff-grey limestone, with a strongly weathered surface. Without opening the showcase, I was allowed to take several pictures of the fragment, from various angles," writes the author.