We have no evidence, but they certainly had, because complex culture needs to transmitted by specialized institutions. The "Assembly hall" on the Citadel of Mohenjo-Daro might have been something similar, if the excavators were right.
Jonathan Mark Kenoyer
So far we have not found any buildings that could be interpreted as institutions of education. Indus peoples undoubtedly had ways to teach their children, but they were probably done in small houses that do not look any different from other houses.
Indus writing attests to (limited) literacy, which requires learning. Astronomy, time reckoning, elementary mathematics and medicine are topics studied in other early civilizations, and cultic lore and rites as well as administration undoubtedly also required teaching. People probably learnt the various crafts from early childhood in their families.
Above: Pillared Hall, L Area, Mohenjo-daro. More on a possible college in Mohenjo-daro.