11. Was IVC and Mesopotamian trade the longest distance trade of the Bronze Age?

Seal fragment of a man with double bun and three fingered hand or trident. Found at Harappa in the late 1990s.

It is known that some of Indus Seals found in Mesotopamia. Are those seals found in a single city or variety of Sumer cities? Is there any known another example for 2000 kms distance of a trade network in Bronze Age? Submitted by Taner Tas

Asko Parpola
Harappan seals from Western and Central Asia come from a number of sites. For a catalogue, map and analysis of sign sequences (which may suggest whether the text written with Indus signs is in Harappan or some other language), see my paper in F. Højlund & H. H. Andersen (eds.), Qala'at al-Bahrain, I (1994). Even earlier large-scale trade networks were those of Uruk period Mesopotamia (extending to Syria, the Causus and Upper Egypt) and the Proto-Elamite network from western Iran to Pakistani Baluchistan). See M. S. Rothman (ed.) Uruk Mesopotamia and its neighbors (2001) and D. T. Potts, The archaeology of Elam (1999).