The modern road winds through the low-lying area between the "citadel" and "lower town." On the left is an ox or water buffalo-drawn cart and driver from Harappa, possibly a toy, but clearly representative of what was used many thousands of years ago.
322 posts, also carried on our Facebook page, about the ancient Indus Valley civilization, including important news, research and occasional visits to museums with ancient Indus artifacts.
Apr 29, 2014
The Indus script remains to be deciphered and we will probably never be sure until a bilingual text of some sort is found (not improbable). Until then, Asko Parpola's work on the fish sign is probably the closest to guarded approval by other major scholars.
Apr 26, 2014
One of the most evocative seals from Mohenjo-daro, depicting a deity with horned headdress and bangles on both arms, standing in a pipal (sacred fig) tree and looking down on a kneeling worshiper.
Apr 24, 2014
The rounded base was originally supported in a ring stand. The black painted geometric designs are arranged in panels with a red slip as background.
Apr 22, 2014
Major Sites and Interaction Networks of the Indus Tradition, Harappan Phase, 2600-1900 BCE, courtesy of J. M. Kenoyer. Six large Indus cities have been discovered.
Apr 19, 2014
Buildings and streets were aligned along a north-south and east-west grid with minor variations introduced as new buildings were constructed.
Apr 17, 2014
"One of the finds from the former room  consisted of fragments of a pierced lattice of alabaster which presumably filled the windows or ventilators at the top of the wall.
Apr 16, 2014
Drawing of the Interior of Hall 76, House XIII, VS Area [of Mohenjo-daro], one of 28 rooms in a well-preserved building.
Apr 15, 2014
"House 13 in the VS Area [of Mohenjo-daro] has a more elaborate plan . . . On its ground floor are four fair-sized courts, ten smaller rooms, three staircases, a porter's lodge, and a well-chamber.
Apr 12, 2014
This drama is depicted on at least two other seals from the ancient Indus metropolis. In other scenes from Harappa, this is a female deity standing on an elephant with a spoked wheel sign above her head (see Deity Strangling Tigers Tablet). Asko Parpola
Apr 10, 2014
The grand and rare humped zebu (bos indicus) motif on a pot from Nausharo (ca. 2600-2500 BCE) and on a square steatite seal from Mohenjo-daro (ca. 2500 BCE). Note how similar they are. The majestic zebu bull, with its heavy dewlap and wide curving horns is
Apr 8, 2014
Gold cap shaped ornaments from Harappa found in a hoard of jewelry from Mound F, Trench IV, House 2. Note the tiny hoops on the inside.
Apr 5, 2014
The dancing girl of Mohenjo-daro in three views, with close-ups of face, choker and bangles, and next to a dancing girl from Jaipur around 1900. John Marshall writes of this figure: "the arms and legs . . . are adorned with armlets, bangles, and anklets.
Apr 3, 2014
Harappa Mound AB Center with the great drain looking out over Punjab. Harappa was first excavated in 1872 by Alexander Cunningham, the original Director General of the Archaeological Survey of India.