"The mound was covered with potsherds and brick bats, but no brick foundations were visible anywhere that might have served as a starting point."
- Daya Ram Sahni, Annual Progress Report of the Archaeological Survey [of India], Hindu and Buddhist
Arrows extend from Harappa to likely source areas for raw materials such as agate, lapis lazuli, steatite, marine shell and copper. These raw materials were transformed into ornaments and tools at Harappa for local trade.
The Ravi Phase denotes a
I currently work as a forensic anthropologist and archaeologist for the U.S. government. I am also the Assistant Field Director of the Harappa Archaeological Research Project (HARP) in central Punjab, Pakistan.
Plan view of the so-called "granary" or "parallel-wall structure" on Mound F at Harappa indicating areas of HARP excavations conducted in 1997 and 1999. Note that the structural remains surrounding the "granary" are, for the most part, later than the
Ist to IIIrd
Circa 2750 B.C. to 3050 B.C.
IVth to VIIth
Circa 3050 B.C. to 3500 B.C.
First half of the
Panoramic view of Mound E with modern Harappa town at the far left. In the center are excavation areas from 1987-1990. At the right is the area of Trench 54, excavated in 2000, that exposes the earliest levels of the ancient Harappan Period city.