During drilling, the tips of agate drills become hot and often spall off.
HARP (Harappa Archaeological Research Project) a group of scholars from a variety of fields dedicated to advancing the study of the ancient Indus Valley civilization.
Flakes of various shades of agate, carnelian, jasper, chert, and lapis lazuli indicate the range of raw materials being processed in this part of Harappa during the Ravi phase.
Tiny steatite microbeads (less than 1mm in diameter) such as those seen here were probably perforated with a sharpened copper wire, while stone drills with larger tips were used for carnelian, lapis, and amazonite beads.
After wet screening, the Ravi phase microdebitage, larger flakes, broken drills, and even microbeads are sorted according to type of artifact and kind and color of stone.
After marking, the entire excavation team is called in to map and eventually collect the bead manufacturing debris and all of the sediment from each layer of Ravi phase floors.
Ravi phase bead manufacturing debris includes extremely fine microdebitage as well as flakes and drills (marked with the green flag).
J. Mark Kenoyer assisted by Peter Eltsov carefully uncover and mark Ravi phase bead manufacturing debris in preparation for mapping and photography.
Chipped carnelian bead blanks indicate that the initial stages of bead manufacture were taking place in this part of the Ravi phase settlement.
Ravi phase microbeads of lapis lazuli (top row), amazonite, and carnelian (bottom row) indicate the size and nature of the drills used for perforation. The largest of the illustrated beads is less than one centimeter in diameter.