Harappa in the 1820s 2

Above: Animal on Burial Jar from Harappa

"A long march preceded our arrival at Haripah, through jangal of the closest description. East of the village was an abundance of luxuriant grass, where, along with many others, I went to allow my nag to graze.

"When I joined the camp I found it in front of the village and ruinous brick castle. Behind us was a large circular mound, or eminence, and to the west was an irregular rocky height, crowned with the remains of buildings, in fragments of walls, with niches, after the eastern manner.

"The latter elevation was undoubtedly a natural object; the former being of earth only, was obviously an artificial one.

"I examined the remains on the height, and found two circular perforated stones, affirmed to have been used as bangles, or arm rings, by a faquir of renown. He has also credit for having subsisted on earth, and other unusual substances, and his depraved appetitie is instanced in testimony of his sanctity.

"The entire neighbourhood is embellished with numerous pipal trees, some of them in the last stage of lingering existence; bespeaking a great antiquity, when we remember their longevity.

"The walls and towers of the castle are remarkably high, though, from having been long deserted, they exhibit in some parts the ravages of time and decay. Between it and our camp extended a deep trench, now overgrown with grasses and plants.

"Tradition affirms the existence here of a city, so considerable that it extended to Chicha Watni, thirteen cosses distant, and that it was destroyed by a particular visitation of Providence, brought down by the lust and crimes of the sovereign.

"We were cautioned by the inhabitants, that on the plain we were likely to be assailed by makkahs, or stinging-gnats; and in the evening we ascended the circular mound behind us. There was ample room on the summit to receive the party and horses belonging to it.

"It was impossible to survey the scene before us, and to look upon the ground on which we stood, without perceiving that Arrian's Sangala was here fulfilled, - the brick fortress, with a lake, or rather a swamp, at the north-eastern angle; the mound, protected by a triple row of chariots, and defended by the Kathi before they suffered themselves to be shut up within their walls; and the trench between the mound and fortress, by which the circumvallation of the place was completed.

"The data of Arrian are very minute, and can scarcely be misapplied to Haripah, the position of which also perfectly coincides with what, from inference, we must assign to Sangala.

"I have made public my convictions on this point, but repeat them, as I doubt not they are just; and the identification of Sangala gives a point from which we may safely calculate upon the site of the celebrated altars of Alexander, which, in all probability, were in the neighborhood of Pak Pattan, on the Satlej, two marches from Haripah, Alexander having there gained the high road into India, which was afterwards followed by Taimur.

"The verification of the site of Sangala is farther important, because, subsequent to its destruction by the Macedonian leader, it again rose into consequence under the name of Euthydemia, clearly referring to a renowned king of Bactria, and which change in its fortunes is supposed to be owing to one of his sons; and we know of know other than Demetrius.

"O ur precautions were vain against the swarms of our tiny antagonists, the gants, and at sunset they so annoyed us, and particularly the horses, which became absolutely frantic, that we had no alternative but to decamp, and march throughout the night.

"Towards two or three o'clock in the morning, we reached the small village of Chicha Watni, seated on the Ravi."

(Charles Masson, Narratives, p. 472)