Craft Traditions of the Indus Civilization and their Legacy in Modern Pakistan

Over-fired Togau D bowl and ring stands (Murda Sang)

When the ancient inhabitants of the Indus and Ghaggar-Hakra regions began to settle down and practice farming and animal husbandry, it was necessary for them to develop new tools and technologies. While some of these technologies had roots in earlier Palaeolithic adaptations, other crafts such as ceramics, metallurgy, faience, and agate bead manufacture reflect the creative and intellectual abilities of the ancient inhabitants of the greater Indus region. Many of the technologies developed by these early agriculturalists and pastoralists were needed to produce ritual objects and ornaments as well as for making functional tools relating to subsistence or defense. Together these technologies provided the foundation for even more complex technologies that were neededto support and maintain urban society.