Between 1992 and 1996 the Punjab Archaeological Survey (PAS), under the direction of the Government of Pakistan, Department of Archaeology, conducted a large-scale survey in order to identify all ancient settlements in the Punjab. Surface surveys at a small number of the settlements identified diagnostic artifacts that were contemporary with the Indus civilization.
An examination of the natural landscape and stratigraphy of the Beas settlement from the Ancient Indus Valley people, essay by Rita Wright
In distinction to the Punjab Survey, the Beas Landscape and Settlement Survey would include a mapping and sampling program and geoarchaeological component designed to assess the relationship between
The field research included the following: 1. Systematic mapping and collection of artifacts at all Beas sites. The methodology included mapping contours and creating a surface grid for each site.
The map above in Figure 2 shows the extent and location of the Beas settlements recorded by the PAS. All nineteen of the settlements were included in the Beas project.
Vainiwal was first identified by M. Sharif (1989) prior to the PAS.
The development of a site chronology is partially based upon a 3 m deep test trench on the interior portion of the central mound (Figure 7). Discrete cultural strata were isolated.
The site of Chak 90-12L is one of the larger sites found along the Beas, at 7.5 hectares.
Lohoma Lal Tibba (19 km. from Harappa), Chak Purbane Syal (23 km.) and Harappa form a small cluster of settlements at the upstream end of our survey area.
The two primary materials discovered in the assemblage at Lohoma Lal Tibba are nodules and sherds.