The two primary materials discovered in the assemblage at Lohoma Lal Tibba are nodules and sherds. The largest concentrations of nodules are on the south mound as shown on Figure 10. At Harappa, these highly vitrified nodules, often combined with ash were used as fill or foundational materials in residential buildings. Their higher densities on the south mound (over 25 kilos in one collection unit), compared to the north, suggest that residential areas were concentrated on this portion of the mounds. Elsewhere, however, we found large quantities of nodules associated with kilns, leaving open the possibility that they were used for heating and craft activities.
We have developed a fairly secure chronology based on surface finds. A distinctive jar, Figure 11 was found in situ eroding from a present-day foot path on the northeast corner of the south mound and we were able to conduct a rescue operation. The jar was lodged in the corner of what may have been a room. This type of pottery has been found in secure stratigraphic contexts in Period 3, phase 3A at Harappa, a key artifact for establishing a relative chronology. The plant motifs and morphology of the jar are consistent with the first stages of the Mature Indus period based on a comparative analysis of its distinctive shape and motifs. The Conservators at Harappa’s conservation laboratory restored the vessel as shown on Figure 11.. Decorative designs and shapes of other ceramics and small finds were consistent with materials recovered at Harappa in phase 3B and another type, pointed base goblets, was identical to others found in phase 3C at Harappa.
The five pointed base goblet sherds in Figure 12 were impressed with a seal identical to one used to seal impressions found at Harappa. These identical forms and impressions attest to the close ties among this small cluster of settlements. In addition to these diagnostic forms, our systematic surface collections included architectural building materials, chert cores, blades and flakes, beads of lapis lazuli and carnelian, steatite, agate, faience, and unidentifiable fragments of copper and shell. This intensive examination of materials on site made it possible to identify diagnostic attributes that might not have been noticed if we had conducted the usual walkovers that have formed the basis of many other collection strategies.
The second site in this cluster, Chak Purbane Syal, was discovered by M.S.Vats (1940). As shown on Figure 2 and the table of radiocarbon dates (Table 2), the PAS initially reported the site as two mounds, Chak 126-9L and Chisti Wala Tibba/Chak 114-91. The current division of Chak Purbane Syal is the result of remodeling due to cultivation, flooding and the construction of irrigation ditches and modern buildings. Vats recorded the height of this mound at 4.67-6.25 m. Currently, remnants of the surviving mound are 1-2 m high. Chak Purbane Syal was settled in the Harappan and remained occupied through the Late Harappan.