Various Carp, Family Cyprinidae 3

Carp represent one of the most ubiquitous fish in the Ravi and its surrounding environs. However, many of the indigenous species have been overtaken by an introduced species from China – the so-called grass carp (Cyprio carpus). However, carp is an important food fish in the Punjab and includes Labeo rohita (rohu), an important food fish as well as an important fish for sacrifices and religious ceremonies in Hinduism and Buddhism.

Snakeheads or Ophicephalus sp. is a common fish in the fish catches throughout the Punjab and within the archaeological deposits of Harappa. This fish was also an important “sacrifice” for various ancient relgions within South Asia. One of the most striking things about this fish is that it has “rudimentary” lungs and can survive outside of the water for up to 12 hours or hibernate in wet mud during a “dry season”. Due to their veracity in extreme environments, these fish have ravaged environments of the Southeastern United States, where as an introduced species, they are referred to as “Frankenfish”.