The Chronology of Indus Seal Production in the Ghaggar Basin: Microscopic and Experimental Analysis


Ayumu Konaskuwawa of Kyoto University goes through the first chronology and detailed study of Indus seal production in Kunal, Farmana, Banawali, and Rakigarhi based on the latest scientific techniques. These are compared with samples from Mohenjo-daro. Interesting insights emerge: right-facing animal seals from Farmana and Banawali are from an earlier phase than left-facing ones. He also used SEM (scanning electron microscopic analyses) of sealings to look at the chronology of Indus seal production through carving techniques. The evolution from rough to fine shaping marks is clear in many examples, and while one cannot make too much of a few examples, this kind of analysis is likely to result in betters methods of dating seals and understanding production methodologies and communities.