Harappa Excavations 1995-2001

New light on the recently named Ravi Phase (3300-2800 BCE), the Kot Diji Phase (2800-2600 BCE), and the Harappa Phase (2600-1800 BCE).

By Richard H. Meadow and Jonathan Mark Kenoyer.

The original 2005 version of this section on a black background can be seen at old.harappa.com.

Click on the slide below for slideshow mode; click on the title for the image on a white background with longer captions.

1. Harappa, Mound AB
2. Mound AB, Ravi phase
3. Ravi phase hand-formed mud-bricks
4. Ravi phase reed impressions
5. Outlining a Ravi phase storage pit
6. Ravi phase pit
7. Ravi phase pit cross section
8. Ravi phase stone beads
9. Ravi phase pit with trash and beads
10. Microscopic analysis of bead drill hole
11. Ravi phase beads
12. Ravi phase microbeads
13. Ravi phase carnelian bead blanks
14. Excavating Ravi phase bead debris
15. Ravi phase microdebitage
16. Harappa excavators
17. Ravi phase microdebitage
18. Ravi phase steatite microbeads
19. Ravi phase raw materials
20. Agate drill tips
21. Jasper drill bits
22. Ravi phase floors in section
23. Sampling soil from the Ravi phase
24. Mound AB, Trench 39N bead debris
25. Kot Diji phase excavations
26. Plan of Kot Diji phase levels
27. Kot Diji phase kilns
28. Larger Kot Diji phase kiln
29. Kot Diji phase terracotta bangles
30. Kot Diji phase street debris
31. Kot Diji phase steatite disc beads
32. Kot Diji phase gold sequins
33. Kot Diji phase raw materials
34. Green stone bead
35. Kot Diji phase coiled basket impression
36. Block removal of basket impression
37. Basket impression and ceramic vessels
38. Plaster jacketing basket impression
39. J. Mark Kenoyer and Richard Meadow
40. Fill of Kot Diji phase storage jar
41. Kot Diji Charcoal Dating
42. Kot Diji phase street
43. Finding Kot Diji phase button seal
44. Glaze on Kot Diji phase button seal
45. Kot Diji phase steatite seal in situ
46. Kot Diji phase elephant seal - obverse
47. Kot Diji phase elephant seal - reverse
48. Kot Diji & Harappa phase levels
49. Kot Diji & Harappa phase levels
50. Harappa phase building remains
51. Rubble paving and Ringstones
52. Harappa phase ringstone fragment
53. Broken Harappa phase ringstones
54. Ringstone in Harappa town
55. Cleaning the complete ringstone
56. Carrying the complete ringstone
57. Enigmatic sandstone objects
58. Stone sculpture fragment
59. Stone sculpture fragment - another view
60. Harappa phase die
61. Harappa phase structural remains
62. Harappa phase brick wall remains
63. Plan of Harappa phase remains
64. Conserving Harappa phase remains
65. Harappa phase wall after reconstruction
66. Harappa phase drain from above
67. Harappa phase baked brick drain
68. Inside of the Harappa phase drain
69. Harappa phase banded beads in situ
70. Harappa phase banded beads
71. Pipal leaf impression
72. Harappa 1993-2001 Mound E/ET plan
73. Mound E excavation
74. Trench 11 excavations
75. Building debris and rubbish
76. Harappa phase ashy debris deposits
77. Cross-section through debris deposits
78. Group of incised baked steatite tablets
79. Life and death of Harappan seals and tablets
80. Indus narrative tablets