Notes and Bibliography

Notes and Bibliography


1. This paper is a revised English version of Parpola: 1985 and essentially a summary of earlier published original work. Detailed documentation, which the reader can find elsewhere (see especially Parpola: 1975, 1984 and 1986), is omitted here.

2. For the term 'icon', see Lyons: 1977, 102-105.

3. Cf. Pfeiffer: 1972, nos. 308 and 725. This root may be related to either Proto-Dravidian *vay / *vey 'straw, grass' (DED 4569, cf. Kui veea 'thatch, thatch grass'), which may be ultimately related to Proto-Dravidian *mec- / *met- / *mey- 'to graze' (Pfeiffer: 1972, no. 824), or to Proto-Dravidian *vay- / *vey- 'to put on as a dress, to cover oneself with clothing, to wear' (cf. Pfeiffer: 1972, 180f no. III 23) or to Proto-Dravidian *may- / *mey- 'on, upon, above, overhead, topmost' (cf. Pfeiffer: 1972, no. 80).

4. For the sake of the argument I would have liked to insert here a discussion of the 'crab' and 'fig tree' + 'crab' (Fig. 17, 18) pictograms, but decided to omit it, because it would have demanded considerable space. The reader is referred to Parpola: 1975, 196-202.


J.-M. Casal: 1961, Fouilles de Mundigak. I-II. (Memoires de la Delegation Archeologique Francaise en Afghanistan, 17.) Paris.

J.-M. Casal: 1964, Fouilles d' Amri. I-II. (Publications de la Commission des Fouilles Archeologiques: Fouilles de Pakistan.) Paris.

D.H. Gordon: 1960, The prehistoric background of Indian culture. 2 ed. Bombay.

J. Lyons: 1977, Semantics. 1-2. Cambridge.

A. Parpola: 1975, Tasks, methods and results in the study of the Indus script. In: Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society 1975: 2, 178-209.

A. Parpola: 1984, New correspondences between Harappan and Near Eastern glyptic art. In: B. Allchin (ed.), South Asian Archaeology 1981, 176-195. Cambridge.

A. Parpola: 1985, Indus-kulttuurin sinetoidyt salaisuudet. In: Tiede 2000, 1985: 10, 12-19. (The earlier Finnish version of the present paper.)

A. Parpola: 1986, The Indus script: a challenging puzzle. In: World Archaeology 17: 3, 399-419.

M. Pfeiffer: 1972, Elements of KurSux historical phonology. (Indologia Berolinensis, 3.) Leiden.

E. Porada: 1971, Remarks on seals found in the Gulf states. In: Artibus Asiae 33, 331-337 & pl. IX-X.

[Originally published as Parpola, Asko (1988) Religion reflected in the iconic signs of the Indus script: penetrating into long-forgotten picto+graphic messages. Visible Religion 6: pp. 114-135.]