Tiny steatite microbeads (less than 1mm in diameter) such as those seen here were probably perforated with a sharpened copper wire, while stone drills with larger tips were used for carnelian, lapis, and amazonite beads.
Ravi Phase objects, motifs and images. The pre-Indus Ravi or Hakra Phase dates to approximately 3300-2800 BCE.
Flakes of various shades of agate, carnelian, jasper, chert, and lapis lazuli indicate the range of raw materials being processed in this part of Harappa during the Ravi phase.
Jasper drill bits were used for drilling carnelian and amazonite beads during the Ravi and subsequent phases at Harappa. On the left are two snapped drill tips while on the right is a broken drill base. All are from the Ravi phase.
After excavation, the section view of the Ravi phase floors with agate manufacturing debris was drawn and photographed, and block samples were taken for micromorphological study.
Blocks of soil removed from the Ravi phase section were taken to the University of Wisconsin, where they were impregnated with resin and sliced thin for microscopic analysis of cross sections of the bead-making strata.
The earliest evidence for normal weave textiles at Harappa is found in this impression on a Ravi Phase bead from Harappa, dating to around 3300 BCE. This fragment is only 1 cm long.
This plan shows concentrations of bead manufacturing debris on several superimposed Ravi phase floor levels that indicate the positions of actual work areas.
These beads from the Ravi Phase (3300-2800 BCE) at Harappa have been made from carnelian and amazonite (right hand bead). The raw material used to make these beads was brought to the site from source areas probably in Gujarat, over 900 km to the