We acknowledge with thanks the generosity of officials in Pakistan for granting us permission to conduct this research. They include Dr. Saeed-ur Rahman, former Director General of the Department of Archaeology and Museums, Government of Pakistan. We owe a great debt to the Punjab Archaeological Survey and the officers of the Punjab Archaeological Survey, most especially Muhammad Hussain, Field Officer. Dr. Mughal served as consultant after his retirement from Government service. At Harappa we thank Barbara Dales who served as the Registrar for the Beas team and set up a recording system for the project in 1999. We thank as well Dr. Richard Meadow and Dr. Jonathan Mark Kenoyer, co-directors of the Harappa Archaeological research Project, whose support and assistance were invaluable. In New York at New York University, Giulia Gallo prepared the illustrations for this paper, streamlined our databases and assisted with a variety of related research projects. The project was supported by grants from the National Endowment for the Humanities (RX2025798), National Geographic Society (608297 and 642799), Wenner-Gren Foundation for Anthropological Research (ICRG11).