Essays on the symbols and study of the written communication or script system used by the ancient Indus Valley civilization.

The Indus Script

Fig Indus Tree + Crab Sign as Proto Rudra

'Fig Tree + Crab' Sign: Proto-Rudra

Fig. 4: Fig Tree + Crab Sign and Components

Parpola refers to two sets of copper tablets, both with the same inscription

The Indus Script

The Indus Squirrel Sign: Title of Murukan

The 'Squirrel' Sign: Title of Murukan

Fig. 3: Bangles and Squirrel Sign

Parpola has proposed reading a pair of signs as 'bangles + squirrel' (Fig.III b),

The Indus Script

The Star Rohini

Fig. 2: Modified Fish Signs

The Star Rohini

Parpola starts with the assumption that the 'dot + fish' sign (Fig.II d) occurring in the 'Fig Deity' seal is likely to represent the deity


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