Harappa, Punjab ancient Indus civilization excavations, figurines, seals and other objects.
The earliest settlement, during Period 1 (c. 3300-2800 BC), was on the west side of Mound AB and NW corner of Mound E. During Period 2 (c. 2800-2600 BC) all of Mounds AB and E came to be occupied, and by the end of Period 3 (c.
After many decades of research, the Indus Civilization is still something of an enigma -- an ancient civilization with a writing system that still awaits convincing decipherment, monumental architecture whose function still eludes us, no monumental
Mound AB, whose origins actually go back five and a half thousands years to 3500 BCE, seen from the rich crop fields that surround many ancient Indus cities including Mohenjo-daro and Dholavira.
The northern end of Mound AB, shown here from the North, comprises more than 17 meters of occupational debris beginning on top of an old levee of the river Ravi and continuing up from the Ravi [Aspect of the Hakra] phase (Period 1 from before 3300 to
Photograph of Mound AB. There also appears to be a smaller mound that is present at the modern Harappa town site. This could be a modern representation of the processes that built ancient Harappa.
"The mound was covered with potsherds and brick bats, but no brick foundations were visible anywhere that might have served as a starting point." - Daya Ram Sahni, Annual Progress Report of the Archaeological Survey [of India], Hindu and Buddhist
The gateway area is located at the southeast corner of Mound E and is part of a mudbrick perimeter wall that was first recognized in 1990. The bastion area consists of a Period 3B (2450-2200 B.C.) wall built upon a Period 3A (2600-2450 B.C.) wall,