A broad range of the questions that can be asked of macrobotanical plant remains from an urban site are highlighted, using the site of Harappa as an example. The topics addressed include the uses of domesticated and wild plants, the nature of agricultural and cooking technologies, types of fodder and fuel, and the use of plant products in manufacturing processes.
Fishing is often neglected in studies of urban societies. This is unfortunate as the study of fish can reveal aspects of subsistence, regional trade, access to resources, and social organization. Coastal and inland relationships can be examined by considering marine and riverine species variation.
Excavations at the third millennium BCE urban site of Harappa (Punjab, Pakistan) have produced a large quantity of mammal bone remains. Two features of this material-bone measurements and density of bone in excavation units are considered from the point of view of using aspects of assemblage variability to document faunal exploitation and site formation processes.
Following a brief discussion of the regional and inter-regional contexts in which Harappan pottery production took place, focus is placed on recent excavations at Harappa for the purpose of providing an introduction to the project with respect to patterns of technology and the organization of production.
A detailed study of ceramic artifacts which augments basic knowledge by delving into the technical aspects of the processes of production used to craft these objects.
An examination of the city's settlement remains which changed with the onset of urban growth and development in Harappa.
A review and explanation of the regional climate, geology, and environment which historically influenced the life and culture of the Harappan peoples.
"A review and synthesis of pertinent pedological, geological, and paleoenvironmental studies in the vicinity of Harappa (District Sahiwal, Punjab,
A short chronological history of archaeological discoveries made at Harappa beginning in 1826 and ending in 1990.
During the 2010 Italian Archaeological Mission to the area, an evaluation of plants and man in past and present times by looking at the wood fueling of kilns.
An important new paper by one of the foremost figures in Indus script research who takes a popular four sign sequence and offers an interpretation.
Excavations at the archaeological site of Harappa, Pakistan in 1987 and 1988 uncovered the remains of at least 92 individuals (84 adults and 8 juveniles), although only 19 were complete skeletons in primary contexts.
An article by Dorothy MacKay, wife of Ernest J.H. Mackay, describing excavations in 1935-36 at the ancient Indus manufacturing site of Chanhu-daro, 80 miles south of Mohenjo-daro. This illustrated July 1937 article from the popular US magazine Asia is a nice summary of the finds at this sophisticated ancient Indus site where, among other things, long carnelian beads, toys, seals and weights were made.
The study of archaeological textiles produced from plant crops in South Asia has advanced significantly in the past decade as a result of archaeo-botanical studies of seed remains and analyses of fibers.
A spectacular exhibition opened on June 24, 2014 at the National Museum of Oriental Art (MNAO) 'Giuseppe Tucci' in Rome, Italy.
A closer look at the mysterious Kulli culture of Balochistan that both pre-dated and was contemporaneous with ancient Indus culture, and apparently was part of an elaborate trading network that stretched west as far as the Jiroft culture in Iran.
A brief discussion of the methodologies needed for the study of Indus ornaments is presented along with examples of how Indus artisans combined precious metals, stone beads, shell and faience to form elaborate ornaments.
"The first radiocarbon date from charcoal included in the mortar of a collapsed pillar lying overturned in the riverbed at Sann (Eastern) Gate, Ranikot, confirms that at least this sector of the fort was built, or repaired, between the beginning of the XVIII and the beginning of XIX century AD, that
An exhibition being held in New York and Madison, Wisconsin, in 1998 on the representational art of the Indus Valley reveals a highly developed artistic tradition with many styles and techniques of production.
Passed from generation to generation as heirloorns, many beads link the past to the present, and over time, such antique beads gain incredible value because of their historical significance and in some cases, spiritual powers.
A look at climate, river-basin and other geographic factors and their relationship to the possible east-ward evolution of the Indus Valley civilization.
The famous article on the weights at Chanhi-darho by A.S. Henny, from Ernest J.H. Mackay original excavation reports. Chanhu-daro was an Indus manufacturing town in Sindh excavated by the Museum of Fine Arts in Boston starting in 1929.
The discovery of many Mesolithic (roughly 10,000 BCE and afterwards, many thousands of years before the height of the Indus Civilization) sites in the Thar Desert in the 1990s.
The flint (chert) sites in Ongar, SIndh go back to the Paleolithic period, up to 2 million years ago.
A statistical analysis of commonly found Indus weights, which seem to be in the ratio, 3000:1600: 300: 200: 150: 60: 32: 16: 8: 4: 2: 1.
The geography and land use of the Little Rann of Kutch, a salt marsh area, is discussed as a possible source of raw material in ancient Harappan times.
An analysis and interpretation of the so-called Harappan chimaera, one of the most peculiar and elaborate iconographies of Indus Civilization.
An important new article compares the occurrence of seals in Mohenjo-daro, Harappa, Lothal, Kalibangan, Chanhudaro.
Beads and pendants are important forms of ornament that have a very long history in the subcontinent.
The purpose of this article is not to present a summary of all of the major discoveries made in the last 55 years, but rather to highlight those that have resulted in major shifts in research paradigms and interpretive frameworks.