In this 2004 article from the quarterly publication Sindh Watch, Paolo Biagi synthesizes the evidence of female clay figurines from Bronze Age sites in the Indus Valley to highlight the social and cultural roles of women in that society. He draws on earlier evidence from the neolithic site of Mehrgarh, in Balochistan, as well as that from mature Harappan sites like Mohenjodaro and Harappa. Based on this analysis he offers the insights into the role of women as depicted in the figurines.
Asko Parpola presents a wide-ranging investigation of the evidence of crocodiles in the Indus Civilization and later traditions.
A detailed look at the unicorn icon on Indus objects, incorporating the latest findings, even incomplete ones like the unicorn figurines shown from Ganweriwala.
This article focuses on subsistence changes by reconstructing the role of fishing during the Indus Valley Tradition (ca. 6500 to 1300 BC), located in the area of modern Pakistan and western India.
This article undertakes to identify methods of fishing in the the Harappan Phase of the Indus Civilization. Given the perishable nature of fishing nets in the archaeological record, the author uses four sets of data to infer the presence of netting as a fishing technology.
This paper studies the formation of craft activity areas in Mohenjodaro. Since 1981, one of the key lines of research carried out by German and Italian archaeologists at Moenjodaro has been the surface evaluation of the craft activity areas of the archaeological complex.
"The discovery of Indus seals manufactured with non-Indus raw materials, but with tools and techniques associated with Indus productions, further supports the idea that merchants and craftsmen from the greater Indus Valley were living and working at interior settlements in the Oman peninsula."
The archaeologist George F. Dales, who excavated at Mohenjo-daro in 1964, and hydrologist Robert L. Raikes propose a theory around the decline of the Indus civilization which involves large flooding and a back-up of the Indus for perhaps a century in ancient times.
This article examines the social implications associated with historical architecture. The presence of centralized "palaces" suggests a social stratification including an elite class.
The Convocation Address of February 26, 2015 at the Dravidian University in Kuppam reflects on similarities between the Indus script and later Dravidian culture. With a number of illustrations and discussions of recent finds in south India.
The Power of a Lost Ritual. An exceptional and controversial recent find in a private collection is analyzed by a leading Italian archaeologist in this fully illustrated complete online volume with many potential implications for understanding ancient Indus culture.
A Mesopotamian cylinder seal referring to the personal translator of the ancient Indus or Meluhan language, Shu-ilishu, who lived around 2020 BCE during the late Akkadian period.
The full story of excavations at Lothal, including the 2008-2009 revisitation project which included satellite imagery and magnetic surveys indicating the presence of interesting structures for a future excavation project.
During the second half of the 3rd millennium BC, the Harappan Civilization covered an area of over one million square kilometers in South Asia, from the Afghan highlands to western India.
A paper assessing evidence for paleopathology to infer the biological consequences of climate change and socio-economic disruption in the post-urban period at Harappa, one of the largest urban centers in the Indus Civilization.
A closer look at the tablets discovered at Harappa during HARPS excavations and the locations where they were discovered at the site.
A discussion of some of the approaches meta-issues that arise when investigating raw materials, their locations and histories of their exploitation and how these can be interpreted. Particular attention is paid to carnelian and the history of possible sources in Gujarat.
An impressive paper by one of the Indus script's most important interpreters and theorists looks at the origins of astronomy in the subcontinent.
Recent work at Harappa by the Harappa Archaeological Research Project shows that a new study of artifacts recovered from the 1999 and 2000 seasons at the site has revealed the presence of silk.
An obituary for an extraordinary artist who helped to replicate the exquisite painted ceramics and figurines that were made at the ancient site of Harappa.
Based on recent excavations at Harappa, it is possible to determine that square seals with animal motifs (such as the elephant) and possibly the short horned bull are among the earliest form of seal with writing.
In 2008, Dr. Parpola published an updated 2nd paper addressing the controversial Farmer thesis Is the Indus script indeed not a writing system? It originally appeared as part of a felicitations volume in honor of Iravatham Mahadevan published in Chennai, India.
An incisive look at the debate around this issue by one of India's foremost archaeological thinkers. Ratnagar looks at the issue in light of Indian Independence and the various political issues and currents that affect archaeological discourse and interpretations.
The research carried out in the Indian Subcontinent, Central Asia, Iran, and the Arabian Peninsula has improved our knowledge of the Middle Paleolithic in the regions. However, the southeasternmost distribution of the Levallois Mousterian is still poorly defined.
The surveys carried out by Professor A.R. Khan in Lower Sindh, Pakistan, during the 1970s led to the discovery of an impressive number of prehistoric sites, some of which are briefly described in Khan’s important monograph on the geomorphology and prehistory of Sindh. Strangely, however, he never mentioned the existence of a (still) unique fisher-gatherer settlement at Sonari in spite of earlier visits he paid to the area.
A brief article by Paolo Biagi and Renato Nisbet which discusses the Palaeolithis sites at Ongar (Sindh, Pakistan), their potential value, the dangers of losing the site and unwillingness of local government to secure it. The article includes nearly a dozen color images including maps, diagrams, and on-location photos of the site.
This paper considers one aspect of the research conducted by the Italian Archaeological Mission in Sindh, more specifically the discovery of the Indus flint mines of the III millennium BC in the Rohri Hills, and the excavations carried out at flint mine RH962.
Data from human tooth enamel are consistent with unexpected immigration from resource-rich hinterlands to urban Indus centers during childhood.