Based on recent excavations at Harappa, it is possible to determine that square seals with animal motifs (such as the elephant) and possibly the short horned bull are among the earliest form of seal with writing.
In 2008, Dr. Parpola published an updated 2nd paper addressing the controversial Farmer thesis Is the Indus script indeed not a writing system? It originally appeared as part of a felicitations volume in honor of Iravatham Mahadevan published in Chennai, India.
An incisive look at the debate around this issue by one of India's foremost archaeological thinkers. Ratnagar looks at the issue in light of Indian Independence and the various political issues and currents that affect archaeological discourse and interpretations.
The research carried out in the Indian Subcontinent, Central Asia, Iran, and the Arabian Peninsula has improved our knowledge of the Middle Paleolithic in the regions. However, the southeasternmost distribution of the Levallois Mousterian is still poorly defined.
The surveys carried out by Professor A.R. Khan in Lower Sindh, Pakistan, during the 1970s led to the discovery of an impressive number of prehistoric sites, some of which are briefly described in Khan’s important monograph on the geomorphology and prehistory of Sindh. Strangely, however, he never mentioned the existence of a (still) unique fisher-gatherer settlement at Sonari in spite of earlier visits he paid to the area.
A brief article by Paolo Biagi and Renato Nisbet which discusses the Palaeolithis sites at Ongar (Sindh, Pakistan), their potential value, the dangers of losing the site and unwillingness of local government to secure it. The article includes nearly a dozen color images including maps, diagrams, and on-location photos of the site.
This paper considers one aspect of the research conducted by the Italian Archaeological Mission in Sindh, more specifically the discovery of the Indus flint mines of the III millennium BC in the Rohri Hills, and the excavations carried out at flint mine RH962.
Data from human tooth enamel are consistent with unexpected immigration from resource-rich hinterlands to urban Indus centers during childhood.
This paper represents as introduction to the work of a contemporary soapstone-cutter living and working between Baluchistan and Sindh.
The results of a three-day visit to the site in March 1984 by two experienced Indus archaeologists, the first such visit since Chanhu-daro was excavated in the 1930s by E.H. Mackay.
The evidence and theories surrounding three chert end-scrapers which were discovered on the surface of Mohenjo-Daro. Wear patterns as well traces of an organic substance found in the grooves offer insight into the original uses of the artifacts.
Indus craftsmanship of small objects and articles and the patterns of intricacies and experimentation in their production -- or Indus Valley technical virtuosity. The paper covers a thorough classification of artifacts and trends in their production over time.
An examination of a variety of discovered artifacts which suggest a trade system within the region. Trade trends are marked and explained as the excavated items reflect shifts in the market.
An article examining the construction of ceramic stoneware in the Indus Valley Civilization with a focus on Mohenjo-daro.
This paper examines a reconstruction of the techniques used by the ancient beadmakers for the production of 'steatite' beads in Mehrgarh (Pakistan) during the fifth century (BCE). Additionally, it includes an in-depth analysis of the methodologies and modern technologies employed in the comparative
A detailed analysis of a rare white marble cylinder seal found at the recently discovered site of Jiroft in south-eastern Iran testifies to the multiple cultural and trade connections between the Indus civilization and its western neighbours.
Dr. Biagi discusses recent finds that are casting new light on the extent of pre-Indus technology and cultures.
Dr. Dupree, a noted expert on Afghanistan, presents a summary of the noted Harappan outpost in the Kunduz region of the Oxus Valley, a site which emphasizes the importance of the lapus lazuli trade.
An insightful survey of fiction about the ancient Indus civilization, a theme rather new to publishing but where we can expect more activity in the future if the recent past is a good indicator. The writer is himself an author of ancient Indus fiction based on research.
A paper examining and interpreting climate models and the history of water supply as it pertains to the Indus Valley civilization (including dramatic changes in precipitation and shifts in the Ravi River among the rerouting of other streams and tributaries).
The landscape and mapping project around the now dry riverbed of the Beas river has cast important light on how ancient riverine settlements and environments interacted with an urban center like Harappa.
A fascinating article that gathers together all facts about Indus settlements and trading with ancient Mesopotamia around 2500 BCE.
A bio-archaeological examination of physiological differences among remains from Bronze Age Harappans.
Understanding the interplay between subsistence systems and settlement patterns is crucial for interpretation of past economies and culture change. The Late Harappan (1900-1700 BCE) in Gujarat, India, witnessed a significant increase in the number of settlements in the arid regions.
A broad range of the questions that can be asked of macrobotanical plant remains from an urban site are highlighted, using the site of Harappa as an example. The topics addressed include the uses of domesticated and wild plants, the nature of agricultural and cooking technologies, types of fodder and fuel, and the use of plant products in manufacturing processes.
Fishing is often neglected in studies of urban societies. This is unfortunate as the study of fish can reveal aspects of subsistence, regional trade, access to resources, and social organization. Coastal and inland relationships can be examined by considering marine and riverine species variation.
Excavations at the third millennium BCE urban site of Harappa (Punjab, Pakistan) have produced a large quantity of mammal bone remains. Two features of this material-bone measurements and density of bone in excavation units are considered from the point of view of using aspects of assemblage variability to document faunal exploitation and site formation processes.
Following a brief discussion of the regional and inter-regional contexts in which Harappan pottery production took place, focus is placed on recent excavations at Harappa for the purpose of providing an introduction to the project with respect to patterns of technology and the organization of production.