271. Plan view of the granary
Plan view of the so-called "granary" or "parallel-wall structure"
on Mound F at Harappa indicating areas of HARP excavations conducted in 1997 and 1999.
Note that the structural remains surrounding the "granary" are, for the most
part, later than the original "granary" structure. From M.S. Vats Excavations
at Harappa (1940).
272. Overview of the granary area at Harappa
Overview of the "granary" area looking towards the southeast. The walls have
been partly restored for conservation purposes by the Department of Archaeology and
Museums, Government of Pakistan.
273. Excavations in 1997 at the southeast corner of the
Excavations in 1997 at the southeast corner of the "granary" area were
undertaken to recover a full sequence of pottery, architectural features, and inscribed
objects. Here workers have found a seal near the base of the excavations in Trench 41NE
that dates only somewhat later than the original "granary" structure.
274. Harappa Trench 41SE
In the upper levels of a small baked brick structure with sump pots was found. This
structure, possibly a latrine, is on the northern margin of a major east-west street that
ran along the southern edge of the "granary" area. It dates to late in Period
3C, perhaps 200-300 years after the original "granary" structure had been buried
by later construction.
275. Harappa Intaglio seal with script and unicorn motif
Intaglio seal (H97-3433/7617-01) with script and unicorn motif found in Trench 41NE in
1997. This seal dates to approximately 2200 BC, at the transition between Harappa Periods 3B and 3C.
276. J. Mark Kenoyer takes notes
J. Mark Kenoyer sitting in the right foreground takes notes during excavations at the
southwest corner of the "granary" (Trench 41SW).
The baked brick revetment of the "granary" platform is in the foreground, the
southernmost baked brick wall of the "granary" itself in the middle ground.
277. A massive brick revetment wall
A massive baked brick revetment wall  surrounds the solid mud-brick foundation
platform  of the "granary" that measures approximately 51 meters north-south
and 41 meters east-west. Based on analysis of the pottery and other finds from below and
against the revetment wall, it is possible to date its construction to near the end of
Harappa Period 3B, between 2300 and 2200 BC.
278. A broken steatite tablet
A broken steatite tablet (H97-3431/7615-01) was recovered from deposits just below the
fired brick revetment of the "granary" platform and dates to Harappa Period 3B
279. A small faience ram amulet
A small faience ram amulet recovered from the fill associated with the southwestern
edge of the "granary" platform. (Trench 41SW, H97-3434/7650-01, Length = 21.8
280. Harappa 2000/2001 Excavation Areasm
Excavations in 1997 at the northwest corner of the "granary" platform were
undertaken to follow the outline of the structure and document its construction (Trench 41NW)).
281. Harappa granary platform
Section through the northwestern portion of the "granary" platform directly
below the baked brick "granary" walls (Trench
41NW). Similarity of composition of the mud-bricks in the northwestern, southwestern,
and southeastern parts of the "granary" platform as well as nearly identical
elevations of the top of the platform and of the foundation trenches in the different
excavated areas indicate that the entire structure was built at one time.
282. Overview of excavations at the southeast corner of the
Overview looking north of excavations at the southeast corner of the
"granary" structure undertaken in 1999 (Trench
41C). The higher east-west running walls in the left of the image and the ruined
structures in the right of the image all post-date the original "granary"
283. Walls and hollow buttresses
After clearing the overlying silt, the original forms of the baked brick walls and
hollow buttresses of the "granary" could be made out. The three high walls in
the upper left of the image are part of a later rebuilding of the entire structure after
ca. 2200 BC.
284. The southeast corner
Clearing outside the southeast corner of the "granary" revealed the
underlying mud-brick platform and the top of the baked brick revetment.
285. Exposed structure discs
Aerial view of the exposed southeastern portion of the "granary" structure
shows the nature of brick bonding and the empty sockets that would have held wooden beams
286. Richard Meadow photographing the structure
Richard Meadow photographing the southeastern portion of the "granary"
287. Deep digging at the southeast corner
Deep digging at the southeast corner of the "granary" revealed an earlier
building [wall 330] constructed along the same east-west alignment. This structure could
have been built as early as the beginning of Period 3B, ca. 2450 BC. The currently visible
"granary" appears to have been constructed ca. 2300 BC, with a third structure
built on top after 2200 BC.
288. Detail view of hollow area
Detail view of a hollow area that would originally have held a wooden beam bonded into
the baked brick structure. In the background is a wall remnant from the later rebuilding
of the "granary".
289. Hollow brick buttresses
Hollow baked brick buttresses were later built up against the original
"granary" structure on top of a shallow mud-brick platform  that itself
overlies the mud-brick platform of the original "granary". Below these platforms
is baked brick wall  (seen here with the scale lying on it) of the structure
preceding the "granary". The precise function of the buttresses is not known,
but eventually they became filled with trash and silt as the street levels outside the
building grew higher.
290. Excavation of one buttress
Excavation of one buttress  shows how the silt and garbage from the street spilled
into the hollow area from the outside of the "granary", eventually blocking it
291. Detail view of fill inside buttress
Detail view of the fill inside the "granary" buttress. Large pottery sherds,
bone, and baked brick fragments lie on the bottom with finer silts on the top.
292. Soil and artifacts removed
All of the sediment and artifacts were removed from "granary" buttress 
for analysis, revealing the method of corbelled arch construction.
293. The buttress was reconstructed using the same bricks
After excavation, "granary" buttress  was reconstructed using the
original bricks set into modern clay mortar.
294. Narrow space at the interior edge of the buttresses
Excavations were conducted in the narrow space running west from the buttresses and
between the interior walls to determine what was inside of the "granary"
295. J. Mark Kenoyer videos
In addition to documentation with still photography, J. Mark Kenoyer videoed the
"granary" areas excavated and narrated details of the stratigraphy and of the
296. Interior shows brick rubble and trash spilling
This image looking east shows baked brick rubble and trash that had spilled through the
corbelled arch of a buttress from the exterior street into a then empty channel between
two "granary" walls.
297. Clearing the interior areas
After clearing an interior area in the southeast part of the "granary", it
became evident that the inner baked brick wall of the original structure had been
dismantled by the ancient Harappans before they filled in the resulting void and built the
overlying parallel-wall structure. Note the protruding baked bricks against which the
pick-axe is resting. These bricks demonstrate the bonding that existed between the
original interior and exterior walls of the building.
298. The wall void (vertical scale)
Looking toward the interior of the "granary" structure, the void of the
original baked brick wall (vertical scale) is filled with small pieces of broken baked
bricks and mud-brick rubble, while the original open space between the walls (horizontal
scale) is filled with compact and relatively clean clayey sediment. There is no indication
of the remains of grain or of storage containers.
299. Granary trenches
After completing the excavation, the trenches were filled with sifted sediment and the
"granary" structures were covered with a protective plaster made of clay and
300. Excavations along the northeast perimeter of the mound
Excavations along the northeast perimeter of Mound F (Trench 41NE) identified traces of
a massive mud-brick wall that protected the interior settlement (to the left) from floods
and unwanted visitors. This perimeter wall of Mound F was buried under the backdirt of the
excavations of the 1920s and 1930s.
301. Harappa domestic structures with hearths and large jars
Inside the city wall were domestic structures with hearths and large jars, part of
structures that had encroached onto what used to be street along the inner face of the
wall (Trench 41NE).
302. Domestic structures with hearths and large jars
Detail of domestic structures with hearths and large jars set into the floor (Trench 41
303. Large jar set into the floor
Large jar set into the floor of one of the small rooms encroaching onto the street
along the inside of the city wall of Mound F (Trench 41NE).
304. Excavation of the fill inside the jar
Excavation of the fill inside the jar (image 303) indicates it was left exposed for
some time and gradually filled with silt as the room became covered with debris (Trench
305. Upturned rim of a jar
Also in a room encroaching onto the street were the upturned rim of a jar (on left) and
two bases (center and right) that were used as hearths (Trench 41NE). The pottery base
hearths could have been lifted and moved to different parts of the room thus serving as
portable heaters as is still done today during the cold winters of the Punjab.
306. Harappa 2000/2001 William Belcher has just removed
William Belcher has just removed charcoal for archaeobotanical analysis and radiocarbon
dating from one of the hearths (image 305) and is making out a label for the sample.
307. Harappa 2000/2001 Excavations Richard Meadow
Richard Meadow photographing the exposed wall and interior domestic
features (Trench 41NE).
308. Interior of the city wall
The interior of the city wall shows mud bricks made from different colors of clay used
during different phases of construction.
309. Superimposed street levels
Superimposed street levels inside the city wall indicate that this area was kept clear
until the last phase of the Period 3C occupation when structures were built encroaching
onto the street (Trench 41NE).
310. Section drawing of the cut through the Mound F city wall
Section drawing of the cut through the Mound F city wall and adjoining interior street,
facing east (Trench 41NE).
311. Western of edge of Mound F, Trench
Excavations in 1999 along the western of edge of Mound F (Trench 43) revealed fallen rubble from walls that had collapsed late in
the Harappan occupation of this area of the site. Drummers standing on the piles of dirt
left from earlier excavations help to lighten the work.
312. Upper levels of the Trench 43 Harappa
Overview of the upper levels of the Trench 43
excavations in 1999 shows the eroded city wall in the background and the fallen baked
brick walls of late Period 3C structures in the foreground.
313. Scattered clay tops, beads, and inscribed seals
After removing the fallen walls, the interiors of the rooms were found to be filled
with surprises. Here in Room 202 were scattered clay tops, beads, and inscribed seals
314. Detail of terracotta tops found in room
Detail of terracotta tops found in Room 202 (Trench 43).
315. Faience button seal
Faience button seal (H99-3814/8756-01) with swastika motif found on the floor of Room
202 (Trench 43).
316. Glazed steatite gaming piece
Glazed steatite gaming piece, faience bead, and unfinished steatite seal
(H99-3860/8756-30) from Room 202 (Trench 43).
317. Black and white spiral faience bead
Black and white spiral faience bead (H2000-5005/9845-48 from Trench 43).
318. Large lumps of a bluish grey paste
Large lumps of a bluish grey paste that may have been used to make faience objects.
Faience is made by melting quartz rock and then regrinding the glassy frit to make a paste
that is then fired once again. Indus faience is sometimes multicolored (see images 82, 216,
319. Unique cylindrical object
Unique cylindrical object made of maroon and white faience (H99-3856/8756-26 from
Trench 43, length = 21.9 mm). Numerous examples of this identical type of bead have been
found in other parts of Harappa, but this may have been where they were actually made.
320. A broken terracotta bird cage
A broken terracotta bird cage (near the scale at right) was discovered next to the
remains of a broken storage jar that had been reused as a hearth (near the scale at left)
321. Reconstructed bird cage
Reconstructed bird cage (H99-4065/8768-7). On the other side it has a slot for a
terracotta door, but no top was found. The exterior was decorated with red slip and black
paint (Trench 43).
322. Terracotta bangle fragments
Terracotta bangle fragments decorated with red trefoils outlined in white on a green
ground from late Period 3C deposits in Trench 43. This image shows both sides of the two
fragments (H98-3516/8667-01 & H98-3517/8679-01).
323. Detail of terracotta bangle
Detail of terracotta bangle with red and white trefoil on a green background
(H98-3516/8667-01 from Trench 43). Trefoil motifs are carved on the robe of the so-called
"priest-king" statuette from Mohenjo-daro and are also known from contemporary
sites in western Pakistan, Afghanistan, and southern Central Asia.
324. Black steatite wig
Black steatite wig from late Period 3C deposits in Trench 43 (H98-3521/8668-02). This
small stone hairpiece, here displayed on a modern clay mannequin, may have been set on an
alabaster head like similar pieces found in western Pakistan, Afghanistan, and Southern
325. Drawing of black steatite
Drawing of black steatite wig from Trench 43 (see image 324).
326. Large unicorn seal
Large unicorn seal (H99-4064/8796-01) found on the floor of Room 591 in Trench 43,
dating to late Period 3C. This is one of the largest seals found from any Indus site.
327. Collections of broken pottery
Excavations in Trench 43 revealed collections of broken pottery that date to the final
phases of the Harappan occupation of Period 3C, ca. 1900 BC. Note the antler piece (image 328) to the right of the broken dish.
328. Part of an antler
Part of an antler, including the burr and the brow tine, shed from a large deer,
probably sambhar (Cervus unicolor) or swamp deer (Cervus duvauceli)
(H99-3828/8763-01 from Trench 43). This specimen may have been used as a pick or possibly
a punch for flint knapping.
329. Falling walls in Trench 4
One of the falling walls in Trench 43 crushed a vessel that belongs to Harappa Period 4
(ca. 1900-1800/1700 BC). In this part of the mound, there appear to be transitional levels
between the Harappan and Late Harappan periods.
330. Period 4 globular pot
This Period 4 globular pot (H99/8763-503) was found crushed beneath a fallen wall in
Trench 43 (see image 329). The rough textured
exterior was covered with a thick layer of blackened clay that indicates it was a type of
cooking pot and not for water storage as earlier scholars have argued.
331. Period 4 globular pots
Period 4 globular pot (H99/8763-503) from Trench 43 after reconstruction. (See images 329 & 330).
332. Period 4 (Late Harappan transitional) kiln
Period 4 (Late Harappan transitional) kiln with hollow lower fire box and arched floor
with holes for allowing heat to enter the upper firing chamber. This type of kiln was
introduced at Harappa ca. 1900 BC and allowed the potters to reach higher temperatures
more efficiently (Trench 43).
333. Hollow fire box of the Period 4 kiln
Looking into the hollow fire box of the Period 4 kiln with arched floor (see image 332). The column of soil in the center was left for
support of the floor (Trench 43).
334. Reconstructed pottery
Collection of reconstructed pottery from the late levels of Trench 43. These shapes
include the final Harappan forms (late Period 3C) and transitional Late Harappan period
shapes (Period 4).
335. Northern area of Trench 4
Continued excavations in 2000 focused on the northern area of Trench 43. Here too were
found fallen walls and well preserved living floors. Note the Period 3C circular platform
in the background at a considerably lower level.
336. Overview of Trench 43
Overview of Trench 43 in 2000 looking north, showing the HARP-exposed circular platform
in the foreground and the "granary" area in the background. Note the wall voids
to the west, south, and east of the circular platform (see also image 356).
337. Pakistani excavators
Pakistani excavators working in Trench 43. The man on the right has just discovered a
spherical agate weight (image 338) while cleaning the
section for photography.
338. Spherical agate weight
Spherical agate weight with one side flattened (H2000-4496/9880-01). This weight does
not conform to the standard Harappan weight system and may indicate the use of a separate
weight system for international trade with Central Asia or other regions.
339. Broken figurines of humans and animals
Excavations of a large late Period 3C pit in Trench 43 resulted in the discovery of
many broken figurines of humans and animals.
340. Human and animal figurine
Collection of human and animal figurines from a large refuse dump in a pit in Trench
341. Female figurine
Female figurine (H2000-4997/9811-02) from Trench 43.
342. Female figurine
Female figurine (H2000-4993/9845-07) from Trench 43.
343. Male figurine Harappa
Male figurine (H2000-4975/9878-07) from Trench 43.
344. Male figurine
Male figurine (H2000-4976/10,024-01) from Trench 43.
345. Male figurine
Male figurine (H2000-4974/9845-01) from Trench 43.
346. Randall Law and Shamoon
Randall Law and Shamoon excavating a red stoneware bangle in Period 3C levels just
below the surface in Trench 43.
347. Red stoneware bangle
Red stoneware bangle (H2000-4490/9843-01) with no inscription. The lack of inscription
may indicate that this may have been a place where the bangles were stored prior to
inscribing them for distribution.
348. Broken unicorn seal
While clearing a floor area in Trench 43, J. Mark Kenoyer discovers a broken unicorn
349. Unicorn seal
Unicorn seal (H2000-4500/10007-01) found on the floor of Room 603 in Trench 43 (image 348), before conservation.
350. Unicorn seal
Unicorn seal (H2000-4500/10007-01) after conservation. Note the deeply chiseled
engraving of the script similar to that found particularly on Period 3C rectangular seals.
351. Copper tablet
Copper tablet (H2000-4498/9889-01) with raised script found in Trench 43.
352. Terracotta bead
Terracotta bead with molded script (H2000-4494/9881-01) found in Trench 43.
353. Circular platforms
Circular platforms in the southwestern part of Mound F excavated by M.S. Vats in the
1920s and 1930s, as conserved by the Department of Archaeology and Museums, Government of
354. Plan of Vat's excavations
Plan of Vat's excavations showing circular platforms. In some cases remnants of the
baked brick walls that probably surrounded each platform can be seen on the plan, although
earlier and later walls are also shown. From M.S. Vats (1940) Excavations at Harappa.
355. The circular platform
The circular platform excavated by Wheeler in 1946 (left) and the one excavated by HARP
in 1998 (right). Both of these platforms were found inside small square rooms that
originally had baked brick walls, subsequently removed by brick robbers (Trench 43).
356. Excavated platform
Detail view of the HARP-excavated platform in Trench 43 with Wheeler's platform to the
east (toward the top of the image). Note the mud-brick wall foundations that surround each
platform to the east, south, and west (the north walls remain unexposed). Traces of baked
brick thresholds can be seen on the right (south). See also image 336.
357. Large concentration of straw impressions
A large concentration of straw impressions was found in one part of the floor next to
the platform, but there is no evidence of chaff from processing grain as was suggested by
earlier excavators (Trench 43).
358. Mark Kenoyer excavating Harappa
J. Mark Kenoyer excavating and sampling the sediments associated with the
HARP-excavated platform, which was partly robbed of baked bricks during the Harappan
period itself (Trench 43). Pottery found under the platforms permits them to be assigned
to Harappa Period 3C, probably toward the middle of that period (ca. 2100-2000 BC).
359. Greenish clay layers
Greenish clay layers were found in a deep depression in the center of the
HARP-excavated platform. One theory that is being investigated is that the platform and
the central pit were used for production of indigo dye (Trench 43).
360. Drawing of ancient Harappa by J. Mark Kenoyer
Rendition of ancient Harappa as it may have appeared in late Period 3B/early Period 3C,
drawn by J. Mark Kenoyer. The granary and working platforms of Mound F are in the
northwestern corner of the city (upper left).